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Scienza

Basi scientifiche di WOOP

Basato su vent'anni di ricerca nel campo della scienza della motivazione, WOOP propone un´idea sorprendente e originale: i nostri più grandi ostacoli possono permetterci di realizzare i nostri obiettivi. WOOP ci insegna a immaginare i nostri futuri obiettivi e a visualizzare quali ostacoli interni ci impediscano di raggiungerli. In gruppi di ricerca scientifica, WOOP ha aiutato individui a ridurre lo stress e a aumentare il loro impegno nel lavoro, a cercare soluzioni integrative e a migliorare il modo in cui gestiscono il loro tempo. Ha aiutato adulti a dimagrire, a bere meno e a coltivare migliori relazioni con gli altri. Usando WOOP, bambini e adolescenti sono migliorati sia per partecipazione che risultati scolastici.

 
 

Per saperne di più su WOOP, potete consultare le seguenti pubblicazioni scientifiche.


Bibliografia

Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277-1293. doi:10.1002/ejsp.730 article

Adriaanse, M. A., De Ridder, D. T. D.,  & Voorneman, I. (2013). Improving diabetes self-management by mental contrasting. Psychology & Health, 28:1, 1-12. article 

Christiansen, S., Oettingen, G., Dahme, B., & Klinger, R. (2010). A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: A randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients. Pain, 149, 444-452. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.12.015. article

Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26. doi:10.1080/01443410.2010.506003 article

Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Gollwitzer, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). From fantasy to action: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) improves academic performance in children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 745-753. doi: 10.1177/1948550613476307 article

Fritzsche, A., Schlier, B., Oettingen, G., & Lincoln, T. M. (2016). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions increases goal-attainment in individuals with mild to moderate depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research40, 557–564. doi:10.1007/s10608-015-9749-6 article

Gawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134-145. article

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503. article

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119. article

Houssais, S., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2013). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to self-regulate insecurity-based behaviors in relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 224-233. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9307-4 article

Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165. article

Krott, N. R., & Oettingen, G. (2018). Mental contrasting of counterfactual fantasies attenuates disappointment, regret, and resentment. Motivation and Emotion42, 17–36. doi:10.1007/s11031-017-9644-4 article

Loy, L. S., Wieber, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2016). Supporting sustainable food consumption: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) aligns intentions and behavior. Frontiers in Psychology7(607). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00607 article

Marquardt, M. K., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., & Liepert, J. (2017). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) improves physical activity and weight loss among stroke survivors over one year. Rehabilitation Psychology62(4), 580–590. doi:10.1037/rep0000104 article

Oettingen, G. (2000). Expectancy effects on behavior depend on self-regulatory thought. Social Cognition, 18, 101-129. doi:10.1521/soco.2000.18.2.101 article

Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1-63. doi:10.1080/10463283.2011.643698 article

Oettingen, G., Kappes, H. B., Guttenberg, K. B., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2015). Self-regulation of time management: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 218-229. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2090 article

Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2002). The motivating function of thinking about the future: Expectations versus fantasies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1198-1212. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.5.1198 article

Oettingen, G., & Schwörer, B. (2013). Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:562. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00562 article

Saddawi-Konefka, D., Baker, K., Guarino, A., Burns, S. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Charnin, J. E. (2017). Changing resident physician studying behaviors: A randomized, comparative effectiveness trial of goal-setting versus use of WOOP. The Journal of Graduate Medical Education9(4), 451–457. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-16-00703 article

Sailer, P., Wieber, F., Pröpster, K., Stoewer, S., Nischk, D., Volk, F., & Odenwald, M. (2015). A brief intervention to improve exercising in patients with schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study with mental contrasting and implementation intentions (MCII). BMC Psychiatry, 15, 1–12. doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0513-y article

Sheeran, P., Harris, P., Vaughan, J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Gone exercising: Mental contrasting promotes physical activity among overweight, middle-aged, low-SES fishermen. Health Psychology, 32, 802-809. doi:10.1037/a0029293 article