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科学理论

WOOP背后的科学依据

以二十多年的内心动力研究为基础,WOOP提出了一个独特而令人惊讶的理念:我们所认为的障碍实际上可以帮助我们实现自己的愿望。WOOP倡导我们憧憬对未来的梦想的同时,分析我们内心有哪些障碍在阻止我们实现这些梦想。在研究试验中,WOOP成功帮助人们减轻了压力,提高了对工作专注,找到了问题的整体解决方案,并改善了时间管理。它为成年人减肥、减少饮酒,以及维持更加健康的恋爱关系提供了有效的支持。使用WOOP的儿童和青少年提高了在校出勤率以及学习上的努力和成绩。

 
 

如欲进一步了解WOOP背后的科学原理,请参阅以下精选科学文献。


精选文献

Adriaanse, M. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Hennes, E. P., de Ridder, D. T. D., & de Wit, J. B. F. (2010). When planning is not enough: Fighting unhealthy snacking habits by mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). European Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 1277-1293. doi:10.1002/ejsp.730 article

Adriaanse, M. A., De Ridder, D. T. D.,  & Voorneman, I. (2013). Improving diabetes self-management by mental contrasting. Psychology & Health, 28:1, 1-12. article 

Christiansen, S., Oettingen, G., Dahme, B., & Klinger, R. (2010). A short goal-pursuit intervention to improve physical capacity: A randomized clinical trial in chronic back pain patients. Pain, 149, 444-452. doi:10.1016/j.pain.2009.12.015. article

Duckworth, A. L., Grant, H., Loew, B., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2011). Self-regulation strategies improve self-discipline in adolescents: Benefits of mental contrasting and implementation intentions. Educational Psychology, 31, 17-26. doi:10.1080/01443410.2010.506003 article

Duckworth, A. L., Kirby, T. A., Gollwitzer, A., & Oettingen, G. (2013). From fantasy to action: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) improves academic performance in children. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 745-753. doi: 10.1177/1948550613476307 article

Fritzsche, A., Schlier, B., Oettingen, G., & Lincoln, T. M. (2016). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions increases goal-attainment in individuals with mild to moderate depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research40, 557–564. doi:10.1007/s10608-015-9749-6 article

Gawrilow, C., Morgenroth, K., Schultz, R., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions enhances self-regulation of goal pursuit in schoolchildren at risk for ADHD. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 134-145. article

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist, 54, 493-503. article

Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 69-119. article

Houssais, S., Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2013). Using mental contrasting with implementation intentions to self-regulate insecurity-based behaviors in relationships. Motivation and Emotion, 37, 224-233. doi: 10.1007/s11031-012-9307-4 article

Kirk, D., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Promoting integrative bargaining: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. International Journal of Conflict Management, 24, 148-165. article

Krott, N. R., & Oettingen, G. (2018). Mental contrasting of counterfactual fantasies attenuates disappointment, regret, and resentment. Motivation and Emotion42, 17–36. doi:10.1007/s11031-017-9644-4 article

Loy, L. S., Wieber, F., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Oettingen, G. (2016). Supporting sustainable food consumption: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) aligns intentions and behavior. Frontiers in Psychology7(607). doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00607 article

Marquardt, M. K., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., Sheeran, P., & Liepert, J. (2017). Mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) improves physical activity and weight loss among stroke survivors over one year. Rehabilitation Psychology62(4), 580–590. doi:10.1037/rep0000104 article

Oettingen, G. (2000). Expectancy effects on behavior depend on self-regulatory thought. Social Cognition, 18, 101-129. doi:10.1521/soco.2000.18.2.101 article

Oettingen, G. (2012). Future thought and behaviour change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1-63. doi:10.1080/10463283.2011.643698 article

Oettingen, G., Kappes, H. B., Guttenberg, K. B., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2015). Self-regulation of time management: Mental contrasting with implementation intentions. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45, 218-229. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2090 article

Oettingen, G., & Mayer, D. (2002). The motivating function of thinking about the future: Expectations versus fantasies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1198-1212. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.83.5.1198 article

Oettingen, G., & Schwörer, B. (2013). Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. Frontiers in Psychology, 4:562. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00562 article

Saddawi-Konefka, D., Baker, K., Guarino, A., Burns, S. A., Oettingen, G., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Charnin, J. E. (2017). Changing resident physician studying behaviors: A randomized, comparative effectiveness trial of goal-setting versus use of WOOP. The Journal of Graduate Medical Education9(4), 451–457. doi:10.4300/JGME-D-16-00703 article

Sailer, P., Wieber, F., Pröpster, K., Stoewer, S., Nischk, D., Volk, F., & Odenwald, M. (2015). A brief intervention to improve exercising in patients with schizophrenia: a controlled pilot study with mental contrasting and implementation intentions (MCII). BMC Psychiatry, 15, 1–12. doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0513-y article

Sheeran, P., Harris, P., Vaughan, J., Oettingen, G., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2013). Gone exercising: Mental contrasting promotes physical activity among overweight, middle-aged, low-SES fishermen. Health Psychology, 32, 802-809. doi:10.1037/a0029293 article